Joe Payack

human skeleton, anatomy, bones

What is the Endocannabinoid System?

Endocannabinoid: a complicated word. Let’s first break down the word, then move to its meaning. Endo-cannabin-oid “Endo” is shorthand for ‘endogenous,’ which translates to naturally occurring compounds and processes inside the human body.   “Cannabin” refers to compounds that are present in cannabis. “oid” means similar to. So, Endocannabinoids are natural compounds in the body that act in ways similar to the plant cannabinoids. How does the Endocannabinoid System (ECS),… Read More »What is the Endocannabinoid System?
sea, waves, sand

What is GMP

GMP is shorthand for Good Manufacturing Practices. GMP was developed by the pharmaceutical industry in the past 50 years to recommend guidelines for the production of medicines. It is all about quality, recordkeeping and cleaning. I’ve followed GMP guidelines for my entire pharmaceutical career, producing hundreds of batches of active pharmaceutical ingredients.  Now, GMP has become a buzzword in the cannabis space. What does this mean, and is true GMP… Read More »What is GMP
anatomy, biology, brain

The Demise Of Organic Chemistry

A recent paper in Nature should strike fear into my buddies in organic chemistry. An artificial intelligence program has been shown to be superior to human chemists in optimizing reaction conditions:  Nature 590, 89–96 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03213-y. This is progress: what would take several expert chemists months to improve and optimize reactions can now be done in silico in minutes.  So, fire the chemists in organic chemistry and hire the computer. That is… Read More »The Demise Of Organic Chemistry

What is Bioavailability?

Those of us who follow the CBD market have been seeing mentions of bioavailability with regards to some of our competitor’s products. I think it would be good to explore CBD/THC bioavailability, but first let’s dive into the concept of bioavailability with definitions and examples. Bioavailability is very simple to define and understand. Chemists and biologists abbreviate bioavailability with the symbol F which is itself an abbreviation of fraction. This… Read More »What is Bioavailability?

What is CBC? A Technical Guide

Well folks, it’s time to take a technical dive into the cannabinoids. We have talked about CBD, CBG, CBN, THC, and now CBC. While this may be somewhat heavy on the chemistry, for those looking for the biochemical background of the hemp/cannabis plant and how it produces all these wonderful molecules, the intellectual rewards will be ample. Our last posts dealt with CBG (cannabigerol) and the biosynthesis of CBD (cannabidiol)… Read More »What is CBC? A Technical Guide

What is CBN?

Well folks, it’s time to take a technical dive into the cannabinoids. While this may be somewhat heavy on the chemistry, for those looking for the biochemical background of the hemp/cannabis plant and how it produces all these wonderful molecules, the intellectual rewards will be ample. Our last posts dealt with the so-called “mother of all cannabinoids,” CBG (cannabigerol), and the biosynthesis of CBD (cannabidiol) and THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) from CBG.… Read More »What is CBN?
cannabis, weed, marijuana

What is THC? A Technical Guide

Well folks, it’s time to take a technical dive into the cannabinoids. While this may be somewhat heavy on the chemistry, for those looking for the biochemical background of the hemp/cannabis plant and how it produces all these wonderful molecules, the intellectual rewards will be ample. Our last posts dealt with the so-called “mother of all cannabinoids,” CBG (cannabigerol), and the biosynthesis of CBD (cannabidiol) from CBG. Now let’s move… Read More »What is THC? A Technical Guide

What is CBD?

Well folks, it’s time to take a technical dive into the cannabinoids. This time we dive deep into what is CBD. While this may be somewhat heavy on the chemistry, for those looking for the biochemical background of the hemp/cannabis plant and how it produces all these wonderful molecules, the intellectual rewards will be ample. Our last post dealt with the so called “mother of all cannabinoids,” CBG, or cannabigerol.… Read More »What is CBD?

What is Organic Science?

We came up with the name Vermont Organic Science for several reasons. First, and most obviously, we are headquartered in Vermont. Secondly, we are committed to organic principles, and practice the scientific method. Let’s dive deeper into the last two items, Organic Science, and flesh out its meaning. Organic, to me, means natural. That’s what most people think. However, in the chemistry world, Organic means something totally different. Just ask… Read More »What is Organic Science?